Pilot Guidelines - Visual Flight Rules (VFR)

In our virtual world, a flightplan should always be filed.
VFR stands for Visual Flight Rules. The pilot must fly and navigate with visual reference to the surface. Due to this, there are certain weather criteria that must be met for a VFR flight to take place.
VFR flights are not permitted in Class A airspace, so there are no criteria.
VFR Flight in Class C, Class D and Class E airspace:
At or above 10,000ft:

  • 1,500 metres horizontally away from cloud
  • 1,000ft vertically away from cloud
  • In flight visibility of at least 8km

Below 10,000ft:

  • 1,500 metres horizontally away from cloud
  • 1,000ft vertically away from cloud
  • In flight visibility of at least 5km

An aircraft is deemed to have complied with the below 10,000ft restrictions if the aircraft is not a helicopter and:

  • it flies at or below 3,000ft AMSL (Above Mean Sea Level)
  • it flies at a speed which is 140KIAS (Knots Indicated Air Speed) or less
  • remains clear of cloud, with the surface in sight and an in flight visibility of at least 5km

If it is a helicopter, it is deemed to have complied with the below 10,

  • it remains clear of cloud, with the surface in sight and an in flight 000 restrictions if:
  • it flies at or below 3,000ft amsl visibility of at least 1,500 meter

VFR Golden Rules

  • Check the class of airspace you are allowed to fly in and check the local rules.
  • Stay VMC at all times. That means (standard)
    • Minimum (flight) visibility 5 kilometres
    • Minimum distance from clouds:
      • 1,500 meters horizontally and
      • 1,000 feet vertically.
  • Seen and to be seen! You have to look and to be Seen and to be seen! You have to look and to be “visible”.
  • A pilot under VFR is responsible himself for providing appropriate separation with other aircraft, eventually with the help of traffic advisory from ATC.
  • Navigate via (easy recognizable) visual reference points and report such points as appropriate.
  • Always ask permission before you enter Controlled Airspace; report at the relevant (visual) reporting points.
  • In the visual circuit always report at (right-hand) downwind and at final. Note: Standard is left hand circuit. Don’t call for “left hand”. IF right hand circuit, always call for “right hand”. E.g. downwind R/W 25 = a left hand downwind for R/W 25.
  • Pilot may use navigational instruments, but he may not depend on them. He depends on the “sight of eye”.

 

In some airports without Clearance Delivery position, obtaining VFR clearance can be done with the taxi instructions without any start up approval for Light Category planes. Example after initial contact has been established,
<Airplane>: (ATC Callsign), PKIND (Type of plane), (Position), request taxi for traffic circuit.
<ATC>: PKIND, taxi holding point 10 via NP2, (Squawk or other instructions as required) QNH 1010. (QNH given if the pilot didn't mention ATIS info received).
<Airplane>: (Readback all the instructions given) PKIND.

Note: The ATC will assume the pilot knows the local procedure for local traffic pattern / circuit for the airport.

OR, for VFR cross country, PKIND, a Cessna 172 from Denpasar Bali to Mataram (After initial contact has been established)
<Airplane>: (ATC Callsign), PKIND, Cessna 172, General Aviation Apron, request taxi, VFR to Mataram.
<ATC>: PKIND, taxi holding point 27 via N1, (Squawk or other instructions as required) QNH 1013.
<Airplane>: (Readback ALL the instructions given) PKIND.
Note: The ATC will assume the pilot knows the exit corridor to the destination. Later after airborne, ATC might request the pilot to report when reaching the exit corridor by the corridor names' (If any) or distance and direction from the airport for the reporting point as necessary.

Note: If cruising altitude is required to be obtained, ATC may ask the pilot to report the planned cruise altitude. Otherwise, pilot will solely responsible to remain VFR at all times.

The following is a transcript of a VFR flight, PKIND, a Cessna 172 from Denpasar Bali to Mataram (The transcript below is just for an example only, and might differ case by case).

PKIND:
Ngurah Tower, PKIND
WADD_TWR:
PKIND, Ngurah Tower.
PKIND:
PKIND, Cessna 172,General Aviation Apron, request taxi VFR to Mataram, 3000ft
WADD_TWR:
PKIND, Taxi holding point RWY27 via N1, Squawk 1201, exit via NE(north east) / Sanur (name of known exit corridor) 3000ft, QNH1011
PKIND:
Taxi holding point RWY27 via N1, Squawk 1201, exit via NE / Sanur 3000ft, QNH 1011, PKIND.
WADD_TWR:
Ngurah Tower.
After cleared for line up, the airplane is on position and ready for takeoff
PKIND:
PKIND, Ready.
WADD_TWR:
PKIND, wind 120 degrees 6 knots, runway 27 Cleared for take-off.
PKINDR:
Runway 27 cleared for take-off PKIND.
When no further controller available like xxxx_APP, tower will untracked A/C.
WADD_TWR:
PKIND, exit via NE of Aerodrome / SANUR, switch to UNICOM 122.8.
PKIND:
Exit NE of Aerodrome / Sanur, 122.8, PKIND.
To cross or to enter controlled airspace: (always) contact ATC on forehand!
WADD_TWR:
PKIND, exit NE of Aerodrome / SANUR, contact Approach 119.7.
PKIND:
exit NE of Aerodrome / SANUR, 119.7, PKIND.
---
PKIND:
Bali Approach, PKIND cessna172 VFR from WADD to WADA, 3000ft.
WADD_APP:
PKIND, cleared to WADA VFR, 3000ft, traffic southbound Cherokee 2000ft VFR.
PKIND:
Clear to WADA VFR, 3000ft,traffic in sight, PKIND.
WADD_APP:
PKIND, report Aerodrome in sight.
PKIND:
Report aerodrome in sight, PKIND.
PKIND:
Bali approach, PKIND, aerodrome in sight.
WADD_APP:
PKIND, contact Selaparang tower 122.2
PKIND:
122.2, PKIND.
---
PKIND:
Selaparang tower, PKIND west of aerodrome (Approximate distance when able to determine) 3000ft, for full stop landing.
WADA_TWR:
PKIND, wind 090 degrees 8 knots, QNH 1012, descend to 1500ft AGL (OR Circuit Altitude), straight in approach RWY09, Report final.
PKIND:
descend 1500ft AGL, QNH 1012, straight in approach RWY09, report final, PKIND.
PKIND:
PKIND, final rwy09
WADA_TWR:
PKIND, wind 120 degrees 8 knots QNH1012, RWY09 cleared to land.
PKIND:
RWY09 Clear to land, PKIND.
PKIND:
PKIND, vacated runway on Alpha.
WADA_TWR:
PKIND, taxi stand 6.
PKIND:
Taxi stand 6 PKIND.
PKIND:
PKIND closing Flightplan.
WADA_TWR:
PKIND, flight plan closed (at time xxxx).

The following is a transcript of a VFR flight, PKIND, a Cessna 172 to fly traffic circuit at Juanda Surabaya.

Taxi Clearance
PKIND:
Juanda Ground, PKIND, information Delta.
WARR_GND:
PKIND, Ground, information Delta correct.
PKIND:
PKIND, Cessna 172, parking stand 1, request taxi for traffic circuit.
WARR_GND:
PKIND, cleared taxi holding point N2, RWY10 via N3N, NP2, squawk 1233 (Squawk given if required).
PKIND:
Taxi holding point N2 RWY10 via N3N, NP2, squawk 1233, PKIND.
WARR_GND:
Juanda Ground.
Airplane at the holding point.
PKIND:
PKIND, N2.
WARR_TWR:
PKIND, wind calm, QNH 1009, RWY10 Cleared for take-off.
PKIND:
QNH1009, RWY10, cleared for take-off, PKIND.
Downwind Leg,
PKIND:
PKIND downwind runway 10, touch and go. (If no altitude reported, ATC will assume the pilot on the standard circuit altitude Above Ground Level).
WARR_TWR:
PKIND, report on final runway 10.
PKIND:
Report final runway 10, PKIND.
Base Leg :
On this leg the pilot is not required to report to the Tower. From Tower previous communication, Tower asked pilot to report on final runway 10.
Final :
PKIND:
PKIND, final runway 10
WARR_TWR:
PKIND, QNH1009, wind 120 degrees at 7 kts, runway 10 cleared for touch and go.
PKIND:
QNH 1009, cleared for touch and go runway10, PKIND.

The following is a transcript of a Z flight, PKIND, a Cessna 172 from Bandung to Jakarta.

Clearance:
PKIND:
Husein Tower, PKIND, ATR72, General Aviation Apron, request clearance Zulu Flight to WIII.
WICC_TWR:
PKIND, cleared Z flight to WIII, exit via NW(north west) of Aerodrome to BND 5500ft, rwy29, info B (OR no metar available), squawk 1233.
PKIND:
Cleared Z flight to WIII, exit NW of Aerodrome to BND, 5500ft, Rwy29, info B, squawk 1233, PKIND.
WICC_TWR:
PKIND, readback correct.
Taxi & departure :
PKIND:
Husein tower, PKIND, request taxi.
WICC_TWR:
PKIND, taxi via apron, holding point RW29, QNH 1012.
PKIND:
Taxi via apron, holding point RW29, qnh 1012, PKIND.
PKIND:
Husein tower, PKIND ready.
WICC_TWR:
PKIND, wind calm, RW29 Cleared for take-off
PKIND:
RW29 cleared for take-off, PKIND.
When no further controller available like xxxx_APP, tower will untracked A/C.
WICC_TWR:
PKIND, exit NW of Aerodrome to BND VOR, contact [ATC UNIT] [freq] OR Switch to UNICOM 122.800.
PKIND:
Exit NW of Aerodrome to BND VOR, 122.800, PKIND.
To cross or to enter controlled airspace: (always) contact ATC on forehand!
WICC_TWR:
PKIND, exit NW of Aerodrome to BND, contact Bandung Approach 121.00 (OR Jakarta App 119.750).
PKIND:
exit NW of Aerodrome to BND, 119.700, PKIND.
PKIND:
Bandung Approach (OR Jakarta approach), PKIND ATR72 Z flight from WICC to WIII, 5500ft.
WICC_APP:
PKIND, cleared VFR to PW (Point to enter IFR still under VFR), maintain 5500ft, qnh1012, learjet 2 o┬┤clock 6nm, 8000 ft, proceeding to the North, report in-sight.
PKIND:
Cleared VFR to PW, 5500ft, qnh1012, traffic in sight, PKIND.
At certain point VFR flight change to IFR, see flight plan, pilot request clearance.
PKIND:
Bandung Approach(OR Jakarta approach), PKIND 10nm inbound PW, 5500 ft request IFR flight to WIII.
WIII_APP:
PKIND, cleared IFR flight to WIII, climb 7000ft over PW, expect PW2 arrival rwy 25L, Set squawk 2201, QNH1012.
PKIND:
cleared IFR to WIII, climb to 7000ft over PW, PW2 arrival rwy25L, squawk 2201, QNH1012.
Further RTF as IFR arrival procedures

Pilot Guidelines - Instrument Flight Rules (IFR)

  • In real life you should file a flight plan before starting an IFR flight
  • There is no altitude limit to fly IFR
  • IFR means that you fly and navigate to your destination by means of Navigational aids such as VOR beacons, NDB Beacons and Intersections.
  • If your flight commences outside controlled airspace (see airway charts) you do not need clearance to operate, however you must request an information service from an ATC unit and remain outside controlled airspace until cleared to enter.

Minimum Levels

All IFR flights have minimum levels except when necessary for take-off and landing, or unless otherwise authorized by the Director, no person may operate an aircraft under IFR below :

  1. In case of operations over an area designated as a mountanous area, an altitude of 2000ft above the highest obstacle within a horizontal disctance of five statue miles from the course to be flown; or
  2. In any other case, an altitude of 1000ft above the highest obstacle within a horizontal distance of five statue miles from the course to be flown.

Minimum levels if both Minimum Enroute Altitude (MEA) and a Minimum Obstacle Clearence Altitude (MOCA) are prescribed for a particular route segment, a person may operate an aircraft below the MEA but not below MOCA, when within 25 statue miles of the VOR concerned (based on the pilot‘s reasonable estimate of that distance). Climb to a higher minimum IFR altitude shall begin immediately after passing point beyond which that minimum altitude applies, except that, when ground obstructions intervene, the point beyond which the higher minimum altitude applies shall be crossed at or above the applicable Minimum Crossing Altitude (MCR).

IFR flight within controlled airspace

In Controlled airspace, under IFR shall maintain the altitude or flight level assigned to that aircraft by ATC. However, if ATC clearence assigns “VFR conditions on top” the aircraft should maintain an appropriate quadrantal altitude as per cruising levels applicable to VFR flight.

IFR flight outside controlled airspace

Cruising levels for IFR except while holding in a holding pattern of two minutes or or less, or while turning, each person operating an aircraft under IFR in level cruising flight outside controlled airspace shall maintain an appropriate altitude or flight level as follow :

  • When operating below FL200: 0-89=Odd thousands; 90-179=Odd thousands+500; 180-269=Even thousands; 270-359=Even thousands+500.
  • FL200 is not usable.
  • Above FL200 and below FL290: 0-179=Odd thousands; 180-359=Even thousands.
  • Without RVSM, when flying at or above FL290 differences become 4,000FT, e.g. 0-179 FL290, FL330, FL370, FL410, etc. 180-359 FL310, FL350, FL390, etc.
  • With RVSM, When flying at or above FL290 differences only 2,000FT, e.g. 0-179 FL290, FL310, FL330, FL350, up to FL410. 180-359 FL300, FL320, FL340, FL360 up to FL400.

The following is a transcript of an IFR flight, GIA734, from Jakarta (WIII) to Surabaya (WARR), with full ATC along the way:

GIA734:
Soeta Delivery, Indonesia 734 with information DELTA, type boeing 737-400 at stand F22 with 100 POB, request IFR Clearence to Juanda Surabaya, Flight Level 330 ready to copy.

WIII_DEL:
Indonesia 734, clear IFR to Juanda Airport Flight, via G461, flight level 330, follow Halim one juliet departure runway 25 Right, squawk 7201.

GIA734:
Cleared IFR to Juanda Airport Flight, via G461, flight level 330, follow Halim one juliet departure, squawk 7201, Indonesia 734.

WIII_DEL:
Indonesia 734, readback corect, contact ground on 121.600 for pushback.

GIA734:
Contact ground 121.600.

---

GIA734:
Soeta ground, Indonesia 734 at stand F22 ready for push and start.

WIII_GND:
Indonesia 734, clear for push and start facing south.

GIA734:
Start and push approved facing south, Indonesia 734.

GIA734:
Soeta Ground, Indonesia 734 request taxi.

WIII_GND:
Indonesia 734, taxi to holding position November (N) 1, holdshort runway 25R, via taxiway November Charlie (NC) 3, November Papa (NP) 1, report on short.

GIA734:
Taxi to holding position November (N) 1 via taxiway November Charlie (NC) 3, November Papa (NP) 1, will report on short runway 25R, Indonesia 734.

---

WIII_GND:
Indonesia 734, contact Soeta Tower, 119.750.

GIA734:
Soeta Tower 118.750, Indonesia 734.

---

GIA734:
Soeta Tower , Indonesia 734 at holding position N1.

WIII_TWR:
Indonesia 734, line up and wait runway 25R behind traffic rolling, squawk mode ON (or Charlie).

GIA734:
Lining up and wait runway 25R, wilco, Indonesia 734.

WIII_TWR:
Indonesia 734, wind 240 at 08 knots, QNH 1011, runway 25R clear for takeoff.

GIA734:
Wind copied, QNH 1011, clear for take off runway 25R, Indonesia 734.

WIII_TWR:
Indonesia 734, proceed SID, contact Jakarta Approach on 119,750, bye.

GIA734:
Jakarta Approach on 119,750, Indonesia 734.

---

GIA734:
Jakarta Approach, Indonesia 734, information DELTA passing 3000 feet climbing to flight level 330, Halim 1 juliet, with you.

WIII_APP:
Indonesia 734, radar identified, cancel SID, clear direct KASAL, climb to final flight level 330, report passing flight level 210.

GIA734:
Direct KASAL will report passing flight level 210, Indonesia 734.

WIII_APP:
Indonesia 734, contact Jakarta Center at 120.90, bye bye.

GIA734:
Jakarta Center at 120.90, for Indonesia 734, bye.

---

GIA734
Jakarta Center, Indonesia 734 climb to flight level 330, inbound KASAL with you.

WIIZ_CTR:
Indonesia 734, Jakarta Center, radar contact proceed as filed, climb and maintain flight level 330 report passing Alpha November Yankee (ANY).

GIA734:
Climb and maintain flight level 330, call you passing Alpha November Yankee (ANY), Indonesia 734.

WIIZ_CTR:
Indonesia 734, contact Bali/Ujung Control at 128.10, bye bye.

GIA734:
Contact Bali/Ujung Control at 128.10, Indonesia 734, bye.

---

GIA734:
Bali/Ujung West Control, Indonesia 734 passing Alpha November Yankie (ANY) for Bravo Alpha (BA) flight level 330 with you.

WIIZ_CTR:
Indonesia 734, Bali/Ujung West Control, roger, continue Bravo Alpha, expect Blora 1 Alpha arrival ILS approach runway 10, report ready for descend.

GIA734:
Expect Blora 1 Alpha arrival ILS approach runway 10, call you ready for descend, Indonesia 734.

GIA734:
Bali/Ujung West Control, Indonesia 734 ready for descent.

WAAZ_CTR:
Indonesia 734, descend and maintain flight level 150, report reaching.

GIA734:
Descent flight level 150, wilco, Indonesia734.

WAAZ_CTR:
Indonesia 734, contact Surabaya Approach at 119.10, bye bye.

GIA734:
Surabaya Approach at 119.10 for Indonesia 734, bye, thank you.

---

GIA734:
Surabaya Approach, Indonesia 734 with information November at flight level 150 Blora 1 alpha arrival with you.

WARR_APP:
Indonesia 734, Surabaya Approach, information November correct, continue descend and maintain 7000feet, QNH 1008, report reaching.

GIA734:
Descend and maintain 7000feet QNH 1008, call you reaching, Indonesia 734.

WARR_APP:
Indonesia 734, turn left heading 090, continue descent 3000feet, vector ILS r/w 10.

GIA734:
Turn left heading 090, descent 3000feet, Indonesia 734.

WARR_APP:
Indonesia 734, turn right heading 100, continue descent and maintain 2500feet.

GIA734:
Turn right heading 100, descent 2500feet, Indonesia 734.

WARR_APP:
Indonesia 734, turn right heading 130, clear for ILS runway 10 approach, report established localizer.

GIA734:
Turn right heading 130, clear for ILS runway 10, call you when established, Indonesia 734.

GIA734:
Surabaya Approach, Indonesia 734 established ILS runway 10.

WARR_APP:
Indonesia 734, continue approach, contact Juanda Tower 118.30, happy landing.

GIA734:
Juanda Tower at 118.30, thank you.

---

GIA734:
Juanda Tower, Indonesia 734 information NOVEMBER established ILS runway 10.

WARR_TWR:
Indonesia 734, Juanda Tower, NOVEMBER correct, continue approach runway 10.

GIA734:
Continue approach rwy 10, Indonesia 734.

WARR_TWR:
Indonesia 734, QNH 1008 wind 090 at 10 knots, runway 10, clear to land.

GIA734:
QNH1008, wind copied, cleared to land runway 10, Indonesia 734.

WARR_TWR:
Indonesia 734, contact Juanda ground on 118.90.

GIA734:
Contact ground 118.90, Indonesia 734.

---

GIA734:
Juanda Ground, Indonesia 734 vacated runway on November (N) 3, request taxi to gate.

WARR_GND:
Indonesia 734, squawk standby, cont taxi to gate of choice via taxiway November (N) 3, November Papa (NP) 1, November (N) 4, report on block.

GIA734:
Taxi to gate of choice via taxiway November (N) 3, November Papa (NP) 1, November (N) 4, call you on block, Indonesia 734.

GIA734:
Juanda Ground, Indonesia 734 onblock.

WARR_GND
Indonesia 734, flightplan closed, welcome to Juanda airport, switch to UNICOM 122.80, see you next departure.

GIA734:
Flightplan closed, switch to UNICOM 122.80 for Indonesia 734, thanks for your service, selamat siang.